Everything You Need To Know About Endometriosis

From the symptoms to surgery.

Roisin Dervish-O'Kane and Michelle October |

Endometriosis: what a bloody mess. It’s a condition as common as asthma and diabetes, but not as often discussed. So, here’s everything you need to know about endometriosis…

What are the symptoms?

While ramped-up period pain is often associated with endometriosis, it doesn’t end there. Women experience pain during intercourse, pain in the lower back, pelvis and even rectum, excessive bleeding, as well as fatigue, diarrhoea, constipation and nausea. If you suspect something’s not right, go see your doctor, stat.

READ MORE: Why Does My Butt Hurt So Much?

Who’s affected?

Women and girls of reproductive age, mostly between 15 and 49. There is a hereditary element, but scientists don’t know if one gene or a family of genes predispose women to endometriosis. There isn’t a known equivalent of the BRCA gene (which indicates if someone has a higher risk of developing breast cancer), but scientists are trying to determine if one exists, to then help identify people needing laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis diagnosis.

How it grows

Endometriosis is thought to be linked to oestrogen levels, with research indicating that sufferers show resistance to progesterone, the other female sex hormone. This is one possible explanation for associated infertility, as progesterone is necessary to thicken the uterus lining each month. Without it, the uterus may be an unfavourable habitat for an embryo to embed and form a pregnancy.

READ MORE: “I Have Endometriosis – But Nobody Understands It”


Because scientists believe the growth of endometriosis lesions is driven by oestrogen, patients are prescribed drugs to stop ovaries producing the hormone, which subsequently reduces pain, stops the problem progressing and reduces adhesion size. Typical medication includes the combined pill, progestogens, a progestogen IUD (like the Mirena coil); or a GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) agonist, which causes temporary menopause.


The aim is to alleviate pain by removing the endometriosis, dividing adhesions or removing cysts. Conservative surgery is usually done via laparoscopy (keyhole surgery), where the surgeon will either cut out the adhesions (known as excision) or destroy them using heat or laser (ablation). Complex surgery is required when the endometriosis adhesions are spread across multiple organs, like the bowel or bladder.


Around 70 percent of patients with endometriosis will have no fertility issues. As to why the other 30 percent struggle, doctors are unsure whether it’s to do with endometrium distorting the pelvic anatomy, altering the chemicals that affect egg quality or the implantation environment of the embryo, or whether another factor affects how sperm move up the fallopian tube.

READ MORE: What You Need To Know About Endometriosis And Your Fertility

Severe pain

Chronic pain affects many women with endometriosis, which can lead to central sensitisation, whereby the more exposure a person has to pain, the lower their threshold becomes. Brain imaging studies have shown that chronic pain patients have a reduced volume of grey matter in the area associated with muscle control and sensory perceptions, such as memory and self-control.


Hysterectomy is a radical surgery for endometriosis and, if guidelines are followed, should only be considered if a patient hasn’t responded to other treatments. Most experts agree that it should only be used in adenomyosis (where adhesions grow into the uterus wall).

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